The War of 1812 in Alabama
and the Creek War, 1813-1814
The War of 1812 took place while Alabama was part of the Mississippi Territory. Alabama was involved primarily because of a civil war between the Creek Indians.
- The Federal Road divided the traditional Upper Creeks from more assimilated Lower Creeks.
- Creek ownership of traditional lands was endangered as land-hungry whites moved across it or settled illegally on it.
- The British sent Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, from the Great Lakes to unite all Indians against white Americans and form an alliance with England and Spain.
- England and Spain incited the Creeks against American settlers and supplied Creeks with guns and ammunition.
Battles raged on the frontier between Creek "Red Sticks" and American militia led by General Andrew Jackson. The last and most famous battle, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (now a National Military Park) destroyed the strength of the Creek Nation. General Jackson forced the Creeks to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, ceding some forty thousand square miles of land to the United States.
- Foreign influence among Indians was destroyed.
- United States took Mobile from Spain, the only additional land acquired in War of 1812.
- The Fort Jackson Treaty, acquiring Creek lands, began a series of forced land-cession treaties by the United States with other southern tribes until all were removed west.
- General Andrew Jackson became a national hero for defeating the Creeks, a victory that helped pave his way to become President of the United States.