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The 20th Century Ku Klux
Klan in Alabama

bullet gif Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan. New York: Doubleday, 1965. Reprints/other editions: 1968, 1976, 1981, and 1987 by various publishers.

A comprehensive work that covers the Klan in all fifty states. Highly revisionist because it demonstrates that the "second Klan" flourished in urban as well as rural areas and also in regions outside of the South. Extremely useful, almost encyclopedic in its coverage.

bullet gif Feldman, Glenn. "The Ku Klux Klan in Alabama, 1915-1954." Ph.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1996.

Forthcoming soon as a book, examines the Klan's origins, activities, and characteristics in Alabama from its rebirth in 1915 to the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954.

bullet gif Forster, Arnold and Benjamin R. Epstein. Report on the Ku Klux Klan. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1979.

Useful overviews of the Klan during Reconstruction, the 1920s, and the 1950s and 1960s.

bullet gif Jackson, Kenneth T. The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Like Chalmers's work, demonstrates that the myth of the 1920s Klan as Southern, rural, violent, and racist was flawed in some ways. Shows Klan strength in urban areas, North and South, and documents the order's political and civic activities, and its violence and nativism.

bullet gif Klanwatch: A Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. The Ku Klux Klan: A History

of Racism and Violence. Montgomery: Southern Poverty Law Center, 1988.

Useful, journalistic coverage of the KKK in its different manifestations through the 1980s.

bullet gif Sims, Patsy. The Klan. New York: Stein and Day, 1978.

Journalistic, insightful account of Klan activity.

bullet gif Snell, William R. "Fiery Crosses in the Roaring Twenties: Activities of the Revised Klan in Alabama, 1915-1930." Alabama Review 23 (October 1970): 256-76.

Scrupulous and detailed coverage of Klan activities in Alabama during the 1920s.

bullet gif ______. "Masked Men in the Magic City: The Activities of the Revised Klan in Birmingham, Alabama, 1915-1940." Alabama Historical Quarterly 34 (Fall and Winter, 1972): 206-27.

Scrupulous and detailed coverage of Klan activities in Birmingham area during the 1920s.